Illumination and/or lighting is what we use to achieve an aesthetic effect or as for the effect of daylight. It uses both, artificial sources such as lamps and fixtures, it also uses the natural illumination of the outdoors. The outdoors in the daytime is used by way of skylights and windows. Which is occasionally a main source throughout the day time hours, as it also helps in saving energy instead of using a means of artificial daytime which is considered to be a major component used in buildings to save on energy. Having the proper means to see by enhances one’s performance, improves appearances, and can have a positive psychological impact on the people. People will usually use fixtures indoors as a means to see by, it is also one of the main features of interior designing, and is used a lot in landscaping.


Going back through history, artificial lighting was used as far back as 400,000 BCE, where it was first in the form of fire and was used in caves. People of prehistoric times had used oil lamps for illuminating. They would make them from the materials that occurred naturally such as shells, rocks, stones, and horns, filling them up with grease, using a fiber wick. The fat use for fuel came from animals and vegetables. There have been hundreds of these types of lamps located in France in today’s modern world dating back as far as 15,000 years. They also used birds and fish (oily animals) as lamps once they had them threaded with a wick. Another thing that was used to illuminate the darkness like daytime were fireflies.

During the early times of illuminating the dark like day is when candles, chandeliers, and fixtures were developed. When whale oil was discovered the cost of illuminating decreased tremendously. Of course, the whale oil begins to stop being used once a Canadian by the name of Abraham Gesner (geologist) refined kerosene back in the 1840’s. There had been 33 different plants making kerosene in the United States by the time 1860 came around. Finally, in 1859 crude oil was discovered and that is when the petroleum industry got its start.

Gas illuminating devices was economical and cheap enough back in the early part of the 1800’s that it was being used to power-up and illuminate the streets in large cities, as well as in home of the wealthy, and in a few of the commercial buildings. The introduction of electric lighting was in the 1880’s.

It is important that the correct intensity as well as the color spectrum be provided for different tasks performed and for different environment. If not, energy not only can be wasted, but it could end up being over illuminated and this could lead to some adverse health and even psychological effects. There are other adverse health issues to be considered, such as getting headaches frequently from having an over illumination, this also includes stress and high blood pressure.